Strength and conditioning for youth athletes has been shown to have many positive benefits which include: improved gross motor skills and performance, injury prevention, reduced body fat, and increased muscle mass, psychosocial well-being, and bone mineral density. Most parents are not certified strength and conditioning specialists and tend to have many questions in regard to when is a strength and conditioning program safe to start for their child, how often should it be done, what type of exercises are appropriate, and should I hire a trained strength and conditioning specialist? This article will attempt to answer these normal questions that most parents and youth coaches may have.
Who is appropriate:
Who is not appropriate:
There is no evidence that strength training stunts growth. Additionally, injuries to the growth plates can occur but this is usually due to improper technique and too much weight. When injury did occur to the growth plate it rarely affected growth. To prevent injury children should never attempt a one-repetition maximum.
Stages and Progression
The Long-Term Athletic Development Model (LTAD) and the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) Optimum Performance Training (OPT) model are two sound pathways for youth strength and conditioning progression. The LTAD has useful information in regard realistic progressions specific to age and skill level to keep physical activity fun and safe, along with maximizing performance level as children age. There are three stages of the LTAD which we will go into more detail on for ages 6-14 years old. The NASM OPT model for young athletes progresses through three levels: stabilization, strength, and power training. This model also provides general guidelines for youth resistance training in regard to sets, reps, intensity, and recovery.
Fundamental Stage (Males 6-9 and Females 6-8)
Per the LTAD, in this stage children participate in less-structured activity with a focus on physical literacy and multiple sports that include running, jumping, and kicking that challenge balance, coordination, and speed. It is not necessary to have formal strength and conditioning training during this phase that is separate from multiple sport participation.
Learn to Train Stage (Males 9-12 and Females 8-11)
In this stage there is low to moderate structure and focus on technical competency. Again, multiple sports are strongly encouraged (three or more) and in this stage children can learn proper body weight training. These exercises would include push-ups, bodyweight squats, pull-ups, planks, lunges, and external resistance with medicine and stability balls or rubber tubing. Per the NASM OPT model this stage of training would start with foundational stabilization exercises with a dosage of 1-3 sets, 12-15 reps, at low intensity, with a recovery of 0-30 seconds between sets. Children can improve strength by 30-50% after 8 to 12 weeks at two times per week of a well designed strength training program.
Click for Sample Training Routine
Train to Train Stage (Males 12-16 and Females 11-15)
This stage involves moderate structure with the focus on technical skills and the secondary focus on performance outcomes. Aerobic training becomes a little more important, but the focus is still on skill, speed, and strength. Periodization can be incorporated slowly with multiple phases and foci and focus may shift to only two sports. Once young athletes have demonstrated great exercise technique with bodyweight and stabilization training they may progress to strength resistance training and eventually power exercises..
Free weights, weight machines, rubber tubing, and medicine balls can be incorporated for a variety of resistance types. Each training session would consist of 6 to 8 exercises that train the major muscle groups with a balanced effort between flexors and extensors and between upper and lower body. Sample exercises could include dumbbell squat and lunges, seated tubing row, staggered stance tubing chest press, and seated dumbbell overhead press on bench. Per the NASM OPT model a dosage of 1-3 sets, 6-15 reps, at moderate intensity, with a recovery of 30-90 seconds between sets is recommended for strength training. The initial load selected for children would be 10 to 15 repetitions that can be completed with some fatigue but no muscle failure. In general, resistance can be increased by 5-10% when the child easily performs 15 repetitions. If the child fails to complete at least 6 repetitions per set or is unable to maintain proper form, then the weight is too heavy and should be reduced.
Power exercises use explosive movements, so to progress to these exercises young athletes need to show great exercise technique and resistance training skill. Examples of power exercises include medicine ball soccer throw, medicine ball chest press, squat jumps, speed squat to overhead press, and eventually olympic lifts starting with just bar weight.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children and adolescents avoid competitive Olympic-style weight lifting and power lifting until they reach physical and skeletal maturity. The snatch and clean and jerk are complex movements that require skilled coaching and such lifts should never be performed without proper training and supervision. Therefore, we recommend that during the later stages of strength training and onset of power training your child train under the supervision of a strength and conditioning specialist. Many experts have recommended that there should be an appropriate athlete-to-coach ratio of one coach per 10 youth athletes to minimize risk. The NASM OPT model also recommends 1-3 sets, 3-6 reps, at high intensity, with 1.5-3 minutes rest between sets for power training.
Click for Sample Strength Training Routine
Written by: Katie Larson, PT, SCS, CSCS
This is a great 5-10 minute off hand ball handling workout for players 9 and up put together by Phil Beckner, an NBA skill development coach. It will improve your off hand control and feel for the ball.
Great footwork can allow you to create space, improve decision making, and finish at the rim against more athletic competition. Watch this video on the stride stop finish which includes game edits, teaching progression, and a mini-workout that can be done at home.
This is a free 10 to 15 minute ball handling workout that addresses ball quickness, changing speeds, and creating space. It can be done in your basement, garage, or driveway areas as part of your home physical education class! We are also now offering home individual instruction classes one time per week for 30 minutes. Go to our home page at youthbasketballdevelopment.com to find out more.
We will get right to the point. For ages twelve and under no zone defense should be played as a player to player or man to man defense better develops the individual skills related to guarding a player both off and on the ball. By playing zone at such young ages the coach has made the decision to emphasize winning a tournament or game versus long-term development. Most eight through twelve years old naturally struggle with perimeter shooting from the three point line, throwing skip passes, looking defenders off and throwing the pass the other way, and being comfortable with the ball in the middle of the zone all of which makes a zone defense effective at the youth level. Fight any urge you may have to take advantage of these natural deficiencies at these young ages to win a game or keep your team in a game. In fact, FIBA (International Basketball Federation) has a “no zone defense” rule for players under the age of fourteen with the stated intent to help the development of young players both offensively and defensively.
We do recommend that you teach a player to player or man to man defense for ages fourteen and under. In our defensive team concepts section we have a progressive teaching program with appropriate drills and games specific to each age level of development. These drills and games address the core defensive concepts of proper stance, vision, anticipation, communication, and togetherness. It is important as you develop your defensive philosophy to know how you will guard the post (play behind, three-quarter deny, or full dead front), guard one pass away from the ball (be in the gap or denying), and guard ball screens (help and recover, trap, or switch) for clarity and decisiveness. Jack Bennett, the former head coach at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and two time NCAA Division III National Champion said that if your team is more athletic than most teams that you will play you can get out and deny one pass away, otherwise play in the gap.
We highly recommend playing one on one each practice as able to improve on the ball defense and incorporate transition defensive work within your practice plan. If your team struggles guarding the ball or fails to make the offense go against a set defense you will struggle to defend anybody. Rebounding can be emphasized by finishing each drill with a rebound throughout your practice. Lastly, defensive breakdown drills (one on one, two on two, three on three, and four on four) are highly recommend as it forces the defense to have to cover more space.
As we reach February many youth basketball programs have been practicing consistently for up to three to four months and practices may have become somewhat monotonous for both players and coaches. Below are five potential strategies to breathe some life into your practices.
Situation Games: Add a 10 minute block to your practice where you play out various situations in one to three minute mini-games. These tend to be focused and intense segments that your players really enjoy. Examples can include:
Shorten Practice Time: Keep practices intense and crisp but shorten them to one hour. You will be able to keep your players attention better along with keeping the intensity high. Sometimes less is more especially at this time of the year. Additionally, by ending practice sooner it may allow you or your staff to work more individually with certain players on specific skills areas following the scheduled team practice time. Your players will appreciate this individual or small group time.
New Drill, Game, or Set: Add a new finishing at the rim game, a different competitive shooting game, or set which the players have a say in to give them ownership. There are hundreds of different drills and games in our library at youthbasketballdevelopment.com or simply go online and search.
End Practice on a Fun Note: John Wooden, in his book They Call Me Coach says, “End practice on a happy note.” This could be done by doing your team’s favorite drill or playing some type of game. For this reason we do not recommend running conditioning drills at the end of practice. If conditioning is an issue there are a lot of transition drills to get your players up and down the floor with a ball in their hand along with working on team defensive concepts.
Cancel Practice: Instead of having practice, cancel it and go as a team to your local high school or college game. Emphasizing fun, life-long participation in basketball is important. Having your team find a positive role model or group in basketball that they identify with and makes them say, “I want to be like them or I want to be a part of this group.” can be a very powerful motivator for long-term commitment and improvement.
In an ideal world our kids and youth players would all be intrinsically motivated to play basketball and improve their skill level. Playing basketball and working on their skills at home would make them feel good and provide a sense of accomplishment versus being extrinsically motivated for rewards or an adverse punishment. However, this is not always the case. Below are some ways to improve intrinsic motivation as well as when extrinsic motivation can be utilized and useful.
Ideas to improve intrinsic motivation:
Best uses of extrinsic motivation or small rewards:
Once basic skill levels and initial intrinsic motivation has been established external motivators should be phased out as they can be detrimental to long-term participation secondary to basketball and skill development potentially feeling like work or an obligation.
Use them both
By utilizing both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and finding the right balance for your child skill level and enjoyment of the game can grow.
We believe that for ages 12 and under no zone defense should be played as a player to player or man to man defense better develops the individual skill related to guarding a player both on and off the ball. Attached with this link are 18 different team defensive games for ages 9-12 that can be utilized to teach the core defensive concepts of proper stance, vision, anticipation, communication, and toughness.